Student engagement questionnaire pdf

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He characterized burnout by a set of symptoms that includes exhaustion resulting from work’s excessive demands as well as physical symptoms such as headaches and sleeplessness, “quickness to anger,” and closed thinking. He observed that the burned out worker “looks, acts, and seems depressed”. After the publication of Freudenberger’s original paper, interest in occupational burnout grew. Belgian Congo with patients who had leprosy, the phrase may have been in use outside the psychology literature before Freudenberger employed it.

In order to study burnout, a number of researchers developed more focused conceptualizations of burnout. In another conceptualization, burnout is thought to comprise emotional exhaustion, physical fatigue, and cognitive weariness. A third conceptualization holds that burnout consists of exhaustion and disengagement. The core of the three conceptualizations, as well as Freudenberger’s, is exhaustion. She later expanded the application of burnout to include individuals in many other occupations.

Consistent with Maslach’s conceptualization, the MBI operationalizes burnout as a three-dimensional syndrome consisting of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. Other researchers have argued that burnout should be limited to fatigue and exhaustion. The view that burnout is a form of depression has found support in several recent studies. Evidence suggests that the etiology of burnout is multifactorial, with dispositional factors playing an important, long-overlooked role.

Cognitive dispositional factors implicated in depression have also been found to be implicated in burnout. Occupational burnout often develops slowly and may not be recognized until it has become severe. When one’s expectations about a job and its reality differ, burnout can begin. Burnout is thought to occur when a mismatch is present between the nature of the job and the person doing the job. A common indication of this mismatch is work overload, which sometimes involves a worker who survives a round of layoffs, but after the layoffs the worker finds that he or she is doing too much with too few resources. Overload may occur in the context of downsizing, which often does not narrow an organization’s goals, but requires fewer employees to meet those goals.