It is part of the Linda Frieze. Some psychologists diagnosed Munch as a sufferer of BPD. Personality disorders in modern life pdf diagnosed with BPD are often very impulsive, and generally have a low self-esteem.
For these reasons, these people often have trouble keeping a stable relationship. Huges used the term “Borderland”, to describe a number of conditions bordering mental health issues. Adolf Stern gave a description of some of the symptoms in 1938, and called them “border line group”. People showed both conditions related to psychosis, and related to neurosis, so the term was though fitting, at the time. They have strong emotions which often change quickly. They are often reckless, destructive or self-destructive. People with BPD feel emotions more easily, more deeply and for longer than others do.
Emotions may repeatedly return and last a long time. Because of this, it may take longer than normal for people with BPD to return to a normal and stable emotional state. This can have both positive and negative effects. People with BPD are often very happy and loving.
People with BPD are also often sad and mad. They are often aware of how strong their emotions are, and, since they cannot control them, they sometimes shut them down entirely. Their emotions are intense and their emotions are also quick to change. The most common mood swings they have are between anger and anxiety and between depression and anxiety. People with BPD often act impulsively, which means they do things or say things without thinking. This behavior can be dangerous, and includes: abusing drugs or alcohol, eating too much or too little, having unsafe sex or frequent sex with multiple partners, spending a lot of money, and driving dangerously.
Impulsive behavior may also include leaving jobs or relationships, running away and self-injury. People with BPD sometimes act impulsively because it gives them instant relief from their emotional pain. However, in the long term people with BPD go through more pain from the shame and guilt that follow these actions. A cycle often begins where people with BPD feels emotional pain and acts impulsively to relieve that pain. As time goes on, impulsive behavior may start to be an automatic reaction to emotional pain. Cuts with a knife, on the upper arm. People with BPD often hurt themselves.
Self-injury is common for people with BPD. Sometimes people hurt themselves without wanting to commit suicide. Common methods include cutting, burning, head banging, and drug overdose. When suicide is the goal, they usually attempt suicide with the belief that others will be better off without them. Both suicidal and non-suicidal self-injury are a response to feeling negative emotions. People with BPD can be very sensitive to the way others treat them. Their feelings about others often switch from positive to negative if they feel like they might lose someone, if they think someone important to them does not care about them, or if something is not as good as they expected.
They think in extremes, seeing things or people as “all good” or “all bad”. This is sometimes called black-and-white thinking. The way they see themselves can also change quickly from positive to negative. They often view the world as dangerous and bad.
BPD is linked to high levels of stress and conflict in romantic relationships, abuse, and unwanted pregnancy. These things are also common with other types of personality disorders. People with BPD tend to have trouble seeing a clear picture of their identity. It is difficult for them to know what they value and love.
They often do not know about their long-term goals for relationships and jobs. They often have trouble making decisions and can change their minds quickly. These difficulties can cause people with BPD to feel “empty” and “lost”. People with BPD may tend to disconnect or “dissociate” from people and things around them, which can be thought of as an intense form of “zoning out”. This often happens in response to a painful event, or something that triggers the memory of a painful event. This can give make the person feel better for a short time, it can also have the unwanted side effect of blocking ordinary feelings.