The Chinese were among the first civilizations to refine oil. During the first century AD, the Chinese were crude oil treatment process pdf the first peoples to refine oil for use as an energy source.
Fierce Oil Workshop”, was established in the city of Kaifeng to produce refined oil for the Song military as a weapon. The workshop was one of the world’s earliest oil refining factories where thousands of people worked to produce Chinese oil powered weaponry. All of the fractions are processed further in other refining units. Since the lighter liquid products are in great demand for use in internal combustion engines, a modern refinery will convert heavy hydrocarbons and lighter gaseous elements into these higher value products. Once separated and purified of any contaminants and impurities, the fuel or lubricant can be sold without further processing. These are not usually transported but instead are blended or processed further on-site. Chemical plants are thus often adjacent to oil refineries or a number of further chemical processes are integrated into it.
The rather large heat energy freed by this process is directly used in the other parts of the refinery. Often an electrical power plant is combined into the whole refinery process to take up the excess heat. Atmospheric distillation unit distills crude oil into fractions. Must hydrotreat the naphtha before sending to a catalytic reformer unit. The reformate has higher content of aromatics and cyclic hydrocarbons. An important byproduct of a reformer is hydrogen released during the catalyst reaction.
The hydrogen is used either in the hydrotreaters or the hydrocracker. Alternative processes for removing mercaptans are known, e. There are also other uses for dimerization. Gasoline produced through dimerization is highly unsaturated and very reactive.