Veda” atharva veda pdf in kannada “Vedic” redirect here. The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism.
Despite their differences, just like the texts of the śramaṇa traditions, the layers of texts in the Vedas discuss similar ideas and concepts. The term in some contexts, such as hymn 10. Marai literally means “hidden, a secret, mystery”. Michael Witzel gives a time span of c. 14th century BC the only epigraphic record of Indo-Aryan contemporary to the Rigvedic period.
Witzel suggests the possibility of written Vedic texts towards the end of 1st millennium BCE. Some scholars such as Jack Goody state that “the Vedas are not the product of an oral society”, basing this view by comparing inconsistencies in the transmitted versions of literature from various oral societies such as the Greek, Serbia and other cultures, then noting that the Vedic literature is too consistent and vast to have been composed and transmitted orally across generations, without being written down. However, adds Goody, the Vedic texts likely involved both a written and oral tradition, calling it a “parallel products of a literate society”. This is the oldest layer of Vedic texts, apart from the Rigvedic hymns, which were probably essentially complete by 1200 BC, dating to c. 12th to 10th centuries BC. 72,000 occur in the four Samhitas. Each of the Brahmanas is associated with one of the Samhitas or its recensions.